Scientific Explanation, Space & Time
Volume 3: Minnesota Studies in Philosophy of Science
Table of Contents
Synopsis…vii
The Ontological Status of Theoretical Entities …3
Grover Maxwell, University of Minnesota
- The Problem…4
- The Observational-Theoretical Dichotomy…7
- What If We COULD Eliminate Theoretical Terms?…15
- "Criteria" of Reality and Instrumentalism…20
- The Ontological Status of Entities-Theoretical and Otherwise…22
Explanation, Reduction, and Empiricism …28
P. K. Feyerabend, University of California
- Two Assumptions of Contemporary Empiricism…32
- Criticism of Reduction or Explanation by Derivation…43
- The First Example…46
- Reasons for the Failure of (5) and (3)…48
- Second Example: The Problem of Motion…52
- Methodological Considerations…62
- Criticism of the Assumphon of Meaning Invariance…74
- Summary and Conclusion…91
- References…95
Deductive-Nomological vs. Statistical Explanation …98
Carl G. Hempel, Princeton University
- 1. Objectives of This Essay…98
PART 1. DEDUCTIVE-NOMOLOGICAL SYSTEMATIZATION…99
- The Covering-Law Model of Explanation…99
- Truth and Confirmation of Deductive Explanations…101
- Causal Explanation and the Covering-Law Model…103
- Covering Laws: Premises or Rules?…110
- Explanation, Prediction, Retrodiction, and Deductive Systematizationóa Puzzle about About…113
PART 11. STATISTICAL SYSTEMATIZATION…121
- Laws of Strictly General and Statistical Form…121
- The Ambiguity of Statistical Systematization…125
- The Theoretical Concept of Statistical Probability and the Problem of Ambiguity…128
- The Inductive Character of Statistical Systematization and the Requirement of Total Evidence…133
- The Logical Form of Simple Statistical Systematizations: A Rough Criterion of Evidential Adequacy…141
- On Criteria of Rational Credibility…149
- The Nonconjunctiveness of Statistical Systematization…163
- Concluding Remarks…166
- References…167
Explanations, Predictions, and Laws …170
Michael Scriven, Indiana University
- Preface…170
- Outline…172
- Preliminary Issues…172
- Fundamental Issues…196
- The Alternative Analysis…224
- Comments on Hempel's Account of Statistical Explanation…226
Explanation, Prediction, and "Imperfect" Knowledge …231
May Brodbeck, University Of Minnesota
- The Attack on the Deductive Model…231
- Common-Sense Facts vs. Philosophical Claims…233
- The Appeal to Ordinary Usage and to "Understanding "…234
- Language as Communication vs. Language as Description…236
- Why Explanation Must Be Deductive…238
- "Perfect" Knowledge and Deductive Explanation…241
- "Certainty" of Premises vs. Deductive Validity…242
- "Imperfect" Knowledge and Deductive Explanation…245
- Explanation by 'Causes' vs. Explanation by Laws…249
- Explanation and Imperfect Knowledge of History and Society…252
- Inference Tickets and Enthymemes…254
- "Conceptual Analysis" and Rejection of Hypothetico-Deductive Theories…258
- Criticism of the Premises of the Deductive Model…262
- "Lawlike" Hypotheticals vs. Causal Laws…264
- Motives, Meaning, and a Science of Man…267
- Concluding Remarks…272
The Factual Content of Theoretical Concepts …273
William W. Rozeboom, Wesleyan University
The Analytic and the Synthetic …358
Hilary Putnam, Massachusetts Institute Of Technology
- Analytic and Nonanalytic Statements…368
- The Rationale of the Analytic-Synthetic Distinction…381
- The Analytic-Synthetic Distinction in Natural Language…389
The Necessary and the Contingent …358
Grover Maxwell, University of Minnesota
Geometry, Chronometry, and Empiricism …405
Adolf Grunbaum, University of Pittsburgh
- Introduction…405
- The Criteria of Rigidity and Isochronism: The Epistemological Status of Spatial and Temporal Congruence…408
- The Clash between Newton's and Riemann's Conceptions of Congruence and the Role of Conventions in Geochronometry…408
- Physical Congruence, Testability, and Operationism…428
- The Inadequacies of the Nongeometrical Portion of Riemann's Theory of Manifolds…430
- An Appraisal of R. Carnap's and H. Reichenbach's Philosophy of Geometry…432
- The Status of Reichenbach's 'Universal Forces,' and His 'Relativity of Geometry '…432
- Reichenbach's Theory of Equivalent Descriptions…446
- An Error in the Carnap-Reichenbach Account of the Definition of Congruence: The Non-Uniqueness of Any Definition of Congruence Furnished by Stipulating a ParticularMetric Geometry…447
- Some Chronometric Ramifications of the Conventionality of Congruence…453
- Newtonian Mechanics…453
- The General Theory of Relativity…463
- The Cosmology of E. A. Milne…465
- Critique of Some Major Objections to the Convenhonality of Spatio-Temporal Congruence…471
- The Russell-Poincare Controversy…471
- A. N. Whitehead's Unsuccessful Attempt to Ground an Intrinsic Metric of Physical Space and Time on the Deliverances of Sense…473
- A. S. Eddington's Specious Trivialization of the Riemann-Poincaré Conception of Congruence and the Elaboration of Eddington's Thesis by H. Putnam and P. K. Feyerabend…485
- The Bearing of Alternative Metrizability on the Interdependence of Geochronometry and Physics…493
- The Fundamental Difference between the Linguistic Interdependence of Geometry and Physics Affirmed by the Conventionalism of H. Poincare and Their Epistemological (Inductive) Interdependence in the Sense of P. Duhem…493
- Exegetical Excursus: Poincare's Philosophy of Geometry…505
- The Empirical Status of Physical Geometry…506
- Einstein's Duhemian Espousal of the Interdependence of Geometry and Physics…506
- Critique of Einstein's Duhemian Thesis…510
- Summary…521
- Bibliography…522
Time and the World Order …527
Wilfrid Sellars, Yale University
I. FACTS,EPISODES,AND THINGS…528
- Truths about Other Times…578
- Do Past and Future Episodes Exist?…541
- Time and Temporal Relations in a World of Things…550
- Do Past and Future Things Exist?…556
- Relativity and the Objectivity of Becoming…567
- The Problem Recast: an Ontology of 'Events'?…577
- More on 'To Exist '…583
- Existence and Tense…588
- Things or Events ?…593
II. DETERMINISM AND TRUTH…595
- Decidability and Truth: Toward a Three-Valued Logic?…595
- Decidability and Truth: A Radical View…604
- Decidability and Truth: Conclusion…612
Name Index…619
Subject Index…622